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Ela's Publications


Castellanos-Reyes, D. (2021). The dynamics of a MOOC’s learner-learner interaction over time: A longitudinal network analysis. Computers in Human Behavior, 123(2021), 106880.   [IF = 6.829]

Interaction is a principle of high-quality course design in online learning. Previous research shows that inter- action in Massive Open Online Courses is crucial for learner retention and course completion. Using panel network data of 386 MOOC learners, this study explored the mechanisms that drive learner-learner interaction over time, specifically, the patterns and evolution of learner-learner interaction in a MOOC through a stochastic- actor-oriented model. The results contradicted previous evidence that learners reciprocate open communication (i.e., replies) in discussion forums and tend to interact with those to whom their direct connections reply. The extent to which learners interact with others similar to themselves (i.e., homophily) was not a statistically sig- nificant predictor of learner-learner interaction over time. Popularity, as measured by open communication, suggested preferential attachment in MOOC learners. High levels of affective communication received (i.e., likes) reduced open communication over time. Implications for practice are discussed, and future research that ana- lyzes the quality of open communication over time is recommended.

Castellanos-Reyes, D., Maeda, Y., & Richardson J.C. (2021). The relationship between social network sites and perceived learning and satisfaction: A systematic review and meta-analysis. [book chapter]. In M. Griffin & C. Zinskie (Eds.), Social Media: Influences on Education. Information Age Publishing.

This chapter presents a systematic review of 31 studies that focused on the ef- fect of using social network sites (SNSs) for educational purposes on students’ perceived learning and satisfaction. It was found that SNSs support these out- comes when guidance and rules are clearly specified to learners. A subset of the studies was also used for a meta-analysis. Small positive relations between SNSs and student satisfaction (r = .17) and SNSs and perceived learning (r = .23) were found. 𝐼2 statistics (95% for satisfaction and 84% for perceived learning) indicated that effect sizes across studies were heterogeneous. Face- book was found to be a cost-effective alternative to learning management sys- tems. Research with additional constructs like motivation is recommended.

Koehler, A., Besser, E., & Castellanos-Reyes., D. (2021). Investigating intentionality in pre-service teachers’ personal and professional social networking site usage. [book chapter]. In M. Griffin & C. Zinskie (Eds.), Social Media: Influences on Education. Information Age Publishing.

Social network sites (SNS) are capable of amplifying educators’ online activities, and for successful use, educators should be intentional with how they use SNS for personal and professional purposes. Approaching SNS use in unintentional ways leaves educators at risk for criticism from key stakeholder groups and professional consequences. To understand the professional-per- sonal paradox that developing educators face when using SNS, we surveyed preservice teachers regarding their SNS use for personal and professional purposes. Using a descriptive approach, 137 preservice teachers were sur- veyed about their intentions to use SNS for personal and professional pur- poses. Results indicate that, in many ways, preservice teachers approach SNS for personal and professional purposes in significantly different ways, sug- gesting they incorrectly believe professional and personal use can fully be separated. Implications for research and practice are offered to support the development of preservice teachers and the efforts of those responsible for preparing them.

Richardson, J., Caskurlu, S., Castellanos-Reyes, D., Duan, S., Duha, M., Fiock, H. & Long, Y. (2021). Instructors’ conceptualization and implementation of scaffolding in online higher education courses. Journal of Computing in Higher Education.  [IF = 2.627]


[Open Access]

This multiple case study explores how instructors conceptualize and employ scaf- folding in online courses. Participants included full time faculty (n=4) who have designed and taught at least one online course within the past 12 months. Data sources included pre-interview surveys, semi-structured interviews, and online course observations. Data were analyzed by employing a general analytical strategy for developing a case description (Yin, 2018). The results showed that (a) instruc- tors define scaffolding as a support to help students achieve course outcomes and (b) instructors implement different types of scaffolding (i.e., conceptual, metacogni- tive, procedural, strategic, and motivational) in hard and soft scaffolding forms. The results also showed that instructors’ conceptualization and implementation of scaf- folding differed based on their discipline and teaching philosophy, and the unique features of online courses. Implications for practice and research are discussed.


Castellanos-Reyes, D. (2020). Socratic Seminar. In R. Kimmons & S. Caskurlu (Eds.), The Students' Guide to Learning Design and Research. EdTech Books. 

[Open Access]

This chapter will discuss the Socratic Seminar as an instructional method, its historical roots, definitions, uses, and practical considerations. Readers can use this chapter as a practical guide on how to implement the Socratic Seminar in their teaching. A table and infographic (see Figure 2) are provided at the end for practitioners to guide their Socratic questioning.

Castellanos-Reyes. D. (2020). 20 years of the Community of Inquiry framework. TechTrends, 64, 557-560.  


Dr. Randy Garrison made a direct quote to this work in his personal blog

The Community of Inquiry framework is a collaborative-constructivist process model that describes the essential elements of a successful online higher education learning experience. This history column entry briefly describes the 20 years of progress in the framework. The column is divided into two decades, first, explaining the establishment of the framework from 2000-2009. Second, discussing the use of the instrument to measure the dimensions of the Community of Inquiry and criticism to the framework from 2010-2019. Finally, current work and future directions are provided.

Manuscripts Under Review / In Press

Bozkurt, A. Karakaya, K., Turk, M., Karakaya, Ö. & Castellanos-Reyes, D. (Under review). The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on teaching and learning: A meta-narrative study.

Castellanos-Reyes, D., Romero-Hall, E., Vasconcelos, L. & García, B. (Under review). Mobile Learning in Emergency Situations: Four Design Cases from Latin America.

Richardson, C., Castellanos-Reyes, D., Janakiraman, S., & Duha, M. (Under review). Developing a Digital Repository for Online Teaching Using Design-Based Research

Manuscripts in Preparation

The stability of the Community of Inquiry survey: A longitudinal analysis. 

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